The term symbolic interactionist used because it is through symbols that meanings, motives and attributes are conveyed.
Olshavsky for his helpful comments on the earlier version of this paper. Symbolic interactionism, a research stream in sociology, is suggested as a potentially very useful theoretical basis for advancing consumer self-concept and product symbolism research.
The literature on consumer self-concept and product symbolism is first reviewed. Next, conceptual and theoretical underpinnings of the contemporary symbolic interactionist perspective are presented comprehensively and then a specific orientation of symbolic interactionism is described.
Finally a model of brand choice is developed based on symbolic interactionism to illustrate its potential contributions. This paper is intended to introduce symbolic interactionism, a research stream in sociology into the areas of consumer self-concept and product symbolism.
First the literature on the self-concept and product symbolism is briefly reviewed. Tucker is the first who proposed that consumers' personalities can be defined through product use.
Evans in his landmark study attempted to examine the differences in personality variables between the owners of different cars.
Koponen reported that cigarette smoking is related to some personality variables. Westfall found that owners of different models of cars exhibited different personality characteristics. Claycamp reported that personality variables were better than demographic variables in predicting patronage for different financial service organizations.
These studies treated the personality traits as "enduring" characteristics of people and focused on the self-expression of the inner nature of the consumer through product use.
However, they neglected the influences of others with whom a consumer interacts through social process on his choice of the product or brand. Although some of these studies found relationships between consumers' personalities and the products they consume, the overall results of this line of research are inconsistent and equivocal.
Thus, it is concluded that this kind of simplistic paradigm could not properly account for product choice processes Kassarjian and Sheffet Self-Concept and Product Symbolism Unidimensional Self-Concept Studies Later, researchers advanced the notion that consumers' buying behavior is determined by the "interaction" of the consumer's self-concept and the image of the product or brand purchased.
The "symbolic property" of certain products was initially suggested by Goffman and Hall and Trager In the marketing literature, Levy initially emphasized the importance of the consumer's self-concept by proposing that the act of consumption as symbolic behavior- is more important to the consumer than the functional benefits of the product.
Products and services are assumed to have an image determined not only by the functional attributes but also by a host of such intangible factors as brand recognition, price, advertising, country of origin, stores, packaging, etc.
Following Levy's proposition, a number of self-concept studies were undertaken. Woods asserted that where ego-involvement with the product is high, product image is important to the consumer.
Birdwell empirically tested the premise that one's self image would be more congruent with the image of the chosen brand than with the images of rejected brands. Grubb and Hupp and Dolich reported similar findings. However, it is noted that in these studies the self was treated as a "unidimensional construct" and the definitions used were referring to the "actual self," i.
Taken as a whole, the results of a host of empirical research following the single self construct approach were ambiguous and inconsistent. Two Dimensional Self-Concept Studies The confusion of those studies has led marketing researchers to conceptualize the self-concept as having more than one dimension.
The central theme of these new approach to self-concept research was: Dolich first distinguished between "actual self" and "ideal self.sion in check.
It’s also possible, of course, that someone’s aggressive tendencies are so. CHAPTER 4 • INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES: PERSONALITY, SKILLS, AND ABILITIES. CHAPTER 4 • INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES: PERSONALITY, SKILLS, AND ABILITIES aspects of personality.
Liberal feminists view gender inequality as arising out of gender differences in socialization, while Marxist feminists say that this inequality is a result of the rise of capitalism, which made women dependent on men for economic support.
The interactionist view of individual differences suggests that heredity and the environment interact both influence the development of individual differences. b. Heredity consists of an individual’s gene pool, gender, race, and ethnic background and has an early influence on personality%(19).
Study Organizational Behavior Review flashcards from Alec H. on StudyBlue. 8. Research on the interactionist perspective suggests.
d. Which of the following statements regarding individual differences and ethics is true? d. V. The postmodern perspective contributes to the idea of balance between individual creativity and constraint.
From a postmodern perspective, dialogue is the key to balancing the moment-to-moment attempts at sense-making (creativity) and the construction of organizational cultural . Interactionist Perspective of Organizational Creativity The interactionist perspective of organizational creativity (Woodman, Sawyer, & Griffin, ) stresses that creativity is a complex interaction between the individual and.