Due to increasing self-service and changing consumer lifestyles, the internet in packaging as a tool of sales promotion and stimulator of impulsive buying behavior is growing increasingly. So packaging performs an important role in marketing and encouraging or even sometimes discouraging the consumer from buying a product, especially at the point of sale or at the time when a consumer is choosing from among different brands of similar products type.
All authors contributed to the conception and design of the study.
This study received no specific financial support. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
The authors confirm that the manuscript is an honest, accurate, and transparent account of the study was reported; that no vital features of the study have been omitted; and that any discrepancies from the study as planned have been explained.
This study follows all ethical practices during writing. Asian Online Journal Publishing Group 1. Introduction This research focuses on how packaging design impacts on consumer buying behaviour of fast moving consumer goods FMCG in Zimbabwe during and after the dollarization era.
The research emanates from the differences in packaging designs of local and imported FMCG products. The research seeks to find out what determines consumer buying habit on foreign packaged products as compared to local products in the period, before, and after the dollarization era in Zimbabwe.
The background The post independence era in Zimbabwe was characterised by the development of local industries including the FMCG sector.
In this period a number of local FMCG products were being displayed in supermarket shelves and competition was mainly among players in the local FMCG sector until when there was hyper-inflation in Zimbabwe forcing many companies out of business. Local FMCG products that used to be on supermarket shelves were replaced by imports and others completely vanished.
These imports however came with different packaging designs of attractiveness than what local manufacturers offered in line with size, colour, and materials.
In Zimbabwe adopted the multi-currency system to replace the local currency, it is during this period when local industries started to revive and the local FMCG products began flocking back into the supermarkets shelves at the back of cutthroat competition from the imports. Zimbabwe products stated facing tough competition from imports as importers can as well afford to sell better appealing products than those of local manufactures.
Technology change is a key driver and in enhancing growth in a competitive business environment today. Change of technology is enabling some manufacturers to produce more appealing, attractive designs than those being produced locally.
Kangasharju highlights that competitive concentration in conjunction with actions and strategies of rivals have greater effects on the survival of companies and companies who fail to enact the appropriate market facing strategies may collapse.
Therefore a proper knowledge of the motives of rivals, the right marketing strategy and the corresponding action to the competition are crucial for the survival of any organisation. Thus, it is important to be abreast with changinging game plan of competitors and try to adjust the products packaging designs to meet the same standards in the international markets or to outwit the competitor completely so as to survive in this dynamic environment where customer tastes are always changing.
Before the period denoted as World War II, the main purpose of packaging of FMCG goods was to standardize, protect the product and ensuring that the product is safe during transportation and distribution, thus this is not a new concept. The main purpose of packaging was to ensure the preservation and transportation of the goods and even for ease-of-use by the consumers but packaging design was typically left to technicians.
However at the end of World War II companies became more interested in mass production and development of packaging and invested more in marketing and promotional tools as a means of converting customers minds to purchase their products. As a result many manufacturers of FMCG goods envisaged packaging as one of the job of a silent sales man.
Industrial revolution that took place at this time meant increased attention to packaging and with socio-economic changes that were taking place around the world consumers were becoming better educated and thus their expectations on package designs and their trust on them increased as well.
Packaging materials that were used for FMCG products include rigid and fixed plastic, metal, paper and glass. Deliya and Parmar assert that packaging design is seen as a vehicle for communication and branding and this has received wide spread attention.
Thus packaging is one of the salient ingredients determining un planned purchasing behavior of customers. In line with that, Kotler highlights that packaging have an attractive bearing, thus it influences purchasing, perception about the product.
Packaging also gives value to products, thus enhancing its merchandise Underwood et al. Consequently the researcher seeks to establish the effect of packaging design on consumer buying behavior, the question is, to what extent do packaging designs impacts on customer orientation towards local FMCG products?
At the same time local FMCG products are on a cutthroat competition to those favouring products with import packaging designs more than those with local packaging designs.
Thus, this has motivated the researcher to explore the effect of packaging design on consumer buying behaviour of FMCG products in Zimbabwe during and after the multi-currency period in Zimbabwe.
Research Objectives The research aims: To examine the impact of packaging designs on consumer purchasing habit of FMCG goods before, during and after the dollarization era in Zimbabwe.
To establish the major role of packaging on FMCG products. To examine the effect of other factors that can be controlled and that cannot be controlled such as price, quality, promotion, socio cultural environment, social class, personality and self concept, attitudes and learning on the purchasing pattern and habit of FMCG products in Zimbabwe.
Thus, retailers may benefit from this study.
The research may also helps scholars to gain an in depth practical knowledge on how packaging act as a silent salesman in an increasing competitive environment. This study is important as policy makers may use the results of this study for their advisory purposes so as to ensure that retailers benchmark their packaging materials with the leading countries.
Packaging Deliya and Parmar highlight that the definition of packaging vary and range from being simple and functionally focused to more extensive, holistic interpretations. The aforementioned assert that packaging act as an extrinsic value of the good. Kotler asserts that packaging includes all activities that are involved until the final package is brought out.
Packaging is also seen as an attribute of the final product.• To identify the most influential tool of sales promotion on consumer buying behavior.
Unbiased response to the questionnaire H4- Buy one get one free Offer has a significant impact on consumer buying behavior in FMCG. Sales promotion should be implemented in a well planned manner.
Fmcg preference questionnaire 1. “A STUDY ON CUSTOMER PREFERENCE TOWARDS SELECTED FMCG WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO COIMBATORE CITY” QUESTIONNAIRE1. xx Q5) Considering the fact that no digital form of marketing can be used in rural marketing, does this pose as a phenomenon which restricts the profit?
The Importance of Brand in Consumer Buying Behavior of FMCG goods in Rural Markets ashio-midori.com 52 | Page To study the urban influence on consumer buying behavior, the village that is closer to urban. Jun 29, · If shoes are always on sale for $, with a regular price of $, the consumer might feel the shoes are not worth more than $ If the price went back to the regular price, buyers would.
The study was conducted to determine which elements of product packaging are the most significant and how they impact consumer buying ashio-midori.com to increasing self-service and changing consumer.