Cain, Jeff, and Fink, Joseph L.
Motivational salience Motivation as a desire to perform an action is usually defined as having two parts, directional such as directed towards a positive stimulus or away from a negative one, as well as the activated "seeking phase" and consummatory "liking phase".
This type of motivation has neurobiological roots in the basal gangliaand mesolimbic, dopaminergic pathways. Activated "seeking" behavior, such as locomotor activity, is influenced by dopaminergic drugs, and microdialysis experiments reveal that dopamine is released during the anticipation of a reward.
Opioid injections in this area produce pleasure, however outside of these hedonic hotspots they create an increased desire. Dopamine is further implicated in motivation as administration of amphetamine increased the break point in a progressive ratio self-reinforcement schedule.
That is, subjects were willing to go to greater lengths e. Each stage of the cycle is composed of many dimensions including attitudes, beliefs, intentions, effort, and withdrawal which can all affect the motivation that an individual experiences.
Most psychological theories hold that motivation exists purely within the individual, but socio-cultural theories express motivation as an outcome of participation in actions and activities within the cultural context of social groups. These fundamental requirements include food, rest, shelter, and exercise.
The next set of needs is social, which refers to the desire for acceptance, affiliation, reciprocal friendships and love. As such, the natural system of management assumes that close-knit work teams are productive.
Accordingly, if an employee's social needs are unmet, then he will act disobediently. The first type refers to one's self-esteem, which encompasses self-confidence, independence, achievement, competence, and knowledge.
The second type of needs deals with reputation, status, recognition, and respect from colleagues. The highest order of needs is for self-fulfillment, including recognition of one's full potential, areas for self-improvement, and the opportunity for creativity. This differs from the rational system, which assumes that people prefer routine and security to creativity.
Self-management through teamwork[ edit ] To successfully manage and motivate employees, the natural system posits that being part of a group is necessary. As a result, individual employees have lost their sense of stability and security, which can be provided by a membership in a group.
However, if teams continuously change within jobs, then employees feel anxious, empty, and irrational and become harder to work with. Wage incentives[ edit ] Humans are motivated by additional factors besides wage incentives.
For instance, the straight piecework system pays employees based on each unit of their output.
Based on studies such as the Bank Wiring Observation Room, using a piece rate incentive system does not lead to higher production. Because supervisors have direct authority over employees, they must ensure that the employee's actions are in line with the standards of efficient conduct.
An individual's motivation to complete a task is increased when this task is autonomous. When the motivation to complete a task comes from an "external pressure" that pressure then "undermines" a person's motivation, and as a result decreases a persons desire to complete the task.
However, recent research on satisficing for example has significantly undermined the idea of homo economicus or of perfect rationality in favour of a more bounded rationality.
The field of behavioural economics is particularly concerned with the limits of rationality in economic agents. Flow psychology and Ikigai Intrinsic motivation has been studied since the early s. Intrinsic motivation is the self-desire to seek out new things and new challenges, to analyze one's capacity, to observe and to gain knowledge.
The phenomenon of intrinsic motivation was first acknowledged within experimental studies of animal behavior.
In these studies, it was evident that the organisms would engage in playful and curiosity-driven behaviors in the absence of reward. Intrinsic motivation is a natural motivational tendency and is a critical element in cognitive, social, and physical development.
The employee has the intrinsic motivation to gain more knowledge. Traditionally, researchers thought of motivations to use computer systems to be primarily driven by extrinsic purposes; however, many modern systems have their use driven primarily by intrinsic motivations. Even traditional management information systems e.
Not only can intrinsic motivation be used in a personal setting, but it can also be implemented and utilized in a social environment. Instead of attaining mature desires, such as those presented above via internet which can be attained on one's own, intrinsic motivation can be used to assist extrinsic motivation to attain a goal.
For example, Eli, a 4-year-old with autism, wants to achieve the goal of playing with a toy train . To get the toy, he must first communicate to his therapist that he wants it.
His desire to play is strong enough to be considered intrinsic motivation because it is a natural feeling, and his desire to communicate with his therapist to get the train can be considered extrinsic motivation because the outside object is a reward see incentive theory. Communicating with the therapist is the first, slightly more challenging goal that stands in the way of achieving his larger goal of playing with the train.Literature Review on Employee Motivation Written by Professionals How Good Does Your Literature Review on Employee Motivation Need to Be?
Employee motivation is a good topic area for your MBA studies as well as other learned papers within other related subject areas.5/5. Literature Review Outline Motivation of employees and creating harmony in the workplace Three issues that considerably add to higher levels of employee motivation and performance, Nemerov ().
The key function of managers is ‘getting things done’ through employees. The following assignment looks at the role of motivation and why it is essential for managers to be aware of the various motivational theories and how the motivational theories could be implemented in .
The Purpose of the Literature Review - The purpose of the literature review is to identify and highlight the important variables, and to document the significant findings from earlier research that will serve as the foundation on which the conceptual or theoretical framework for the current investigation can be based and the hypotheses developed (Cavana, Delahaye & Sekaran ).
A Brief Literature Review on Employee Motivation Posted on March 25, by John Dudovskiy Bruce and Pepitone () propose an interesting viewpoint according to which managers cannot motivate employees; managers can only influence what employees are motivated to do.
This slim motivation guidebook was written to bridge the gap between the academic research on motivation and to present it in a form that is useful to the practicing manager.