Renewable energy in Germany InGermany's share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption increased by 1. Inrenewables accounted for only 5.
In the case of employees, working hours have a direct bearing on standard of living, level of work—life balance and the overall sustainability of working life.
For employers, working time is a key element in the calculation of costs, productivity and competitiveness. Working time, and its regulation, is likewise an important policy issue for national governments.
This report, covering the 27 Member States of the EU and Norway, focuses on changes in working time and practices relating to the organisation of work over the period The study was compiled on the basis of individual national reports submitted by the EWCO correspondents.
The text of each of these national reports is available below. The reports have not been edited or approved by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The national reports were drawn up in response to a questionnaire and should be read in conjunction with it.
Introduction Working time issues and practices — the volume of hours worked a week or a year, and the way that work is structured and organised — are central to the interests of individual employers and employees, but also to the workings of the economy and society generally.
At present, such working time arrangements in the enlarged European Union are evolving in a variety of ways, revealing both positive and negative experiences as employers, employees and, to some extent, governments, attempt to reconcile their various aspirations and expectations.
The pursuit of higher living standards remains an important goal of working people, especially in less prosperous countries, with inevitable consequences in terms of the numbers of people seeking employment, as well as the hours that they would like to work.
However, such pressures are being tempered by the increasing desire to better reconcile work-life balance issues, as well as to achieve greater equality between women and men. Given the significant economic and social differences between Member States, it is hardly surprising that working time structures vary considerably between countries, with differences evident not only in overall patterns of working time, but also in the pace, and in some cases even the direction, of change.
Despite these apparent differences, however, some strong underlying relationships exist in all countries between annual working hours, weekly hours and the relative importance of part-time working.
This report focuses on changes in working time, and practices relating to the organisation of work, in the 27 Member States of the EU EU27 plus Norway from to Focus of report The report addresses the following issues: Methodology and data Data and information sources The report draws on data from various sources together with questionnaire-based reports from national correspondents of the European Working Conditions Observatory EWCO network, who had already been provided with the relevant background data.
The first data source is the annual EU Labour Force Survey LFS which collects data on average hours worked by men and women in both part-time and full-time employment, on the proportion of men and women working part time, and on the relative number of men and women employed under different working time arrangements including by means of an ad hoc LFS carried out in A second data source is the national accounts for EU countries, compiled by Eurostatthe Statistical Office of the European communities.
These accounts include data on the total annual hours worked, as well as the number of people in employment, from which it is possible to derive data for average annual working hours. The third source of data used is the Fourth European Working Conditions Survey EWCSconducted by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions Eurofound in the autumn ofwhich reports on a range of quantitative and qualitative aspects of working time.
In particular, data have been taken from the EWCS concerning non-standard work practices, work schedules, and the organisation and flexibility of working time arrangements.
Presentation of evidence When research findings are presented for all EU27 Member States, it is a common practice in social policy work to group countries in certain ways, most notably in terms of some variant of the Esping-Andersen typology — essentially derived from a categorisation of national welfare systems, grouped on a geographical basis.
Other research and policy reports may use alternate terms or formulations — such as Nordic, Anglo-Saxon, eastern European, or Mediterranean countries — but the coverage and categorisation are essentially similar.
The introduction to the fourth EWCS offers various justifications for the country groupings. These arguments seem valid enough: Useful as these a priori categorisations are, however, they risk pre-judging situations, or encouraging the reader to interpret evidence in ways that may not be justified.
The practical response of the authors of the gender report to this problem was to restrict themselves, on a whole, to an analysis of data aggregated for all EU27 Member States, with individual country differences addressed only in a relatively limited number of cases.
However, as the purpose of this report was to compare differences in structure and development of working time between Member States, based on the views of national correspondents and the available data, such an option was not possible. In deference to the arguments deployed in the gender perspective report, while recognising that there is a need for some form of categorisation, for this report it was decided to group the EU27 Member States plus Norway not on the basis of a conceptual notion, but on the basis of a common comparative quantitative measure of working time.
In this regard, the measure of choice is average annual hours worked in the different countries. This approach has two disadvantages. First, average annual working hours is not a concept that is commonly used in everyday discussions on working time. Secondly, it may be seen by some researchers as having an overly economic bias in an area of work where industrial relations considerations often dominate discussions.European Union civil servants who are sent by and work for the member states rather than the EU itself.
Common Agricultual Policy (CAP) The EU's agricultural policy, blamed for many of its economic troubles and likely to be changed as it adds new members. DS: European Union — Measures Related to Price Comparison Methodologies This summary has been prepared by the Secretariat under its own responsibility.
The summary is for general information only and is not intended to affect the rights and obligations of Members. Over 1, EU nationals have served in the Mission over the years.
That these staff have come from all 28 EU Member States is the strongest possible testament to the commitment of the entire European Union to this Mission.
What the EU does - its aims and challenges. European Union and the OECD The Commission of the European Union (EU) takes part in the work of the OECD, in accordance with the Supplementary Protocol to the Convention on the OECD.
This participation goes well beyond that of a mere observer. The European Union (EU) was founded in in the aftermath of World War Two to promote stability and economic cooperation between member states.