Introduction One of the greatest issues in Africa today and the world over on which there is so much confusion concerns the relationship which exists, or should exist, between religion and politics. Many leaders today are declaring that their States are secular.
The distinction is similar to that made by St. Augustine between the City of God and the City of the World. Luther argued that God governs the world in two ways: These two domains of power and grace are interdependent because the Gospel itself cannot preserve societal peace and justiceand civil government cannot effect salvation.
Historically, this entailed the autonomy of the secular realm, even a certain subservience of the religious to the secular. Quite consistently, when the German peasants staged an uprising in —25, Luther forcefully argued that social and political demands cannot be justified by the Gospel.
Lutheran theology stressed obedience to government as a Christian duty and did not, as did Reformed theology, produce a fully developed doctrine of resistance against tyrannical governments.
Luther advocated resistance only if the preaching of the Gospel was in jeopardy. Nazi totalitarianism caught German Lutheranism unprepared to offer a clear rationale for opposing tyranny. The weakness of Lutheran theology on this point became evident during the period of Nazi rule.
Thus, when the government decreed racially exclusionary laws, which had implications for the churches, most Lutheran theologians conceded that it had the authority to do so under the divine order.
The impact of Nazi Germany and other totalitarian regimes led some Lutheran church leaders, such as the German theologian Dietrich Bonhoeffer and the Norwegian bishop Eivind Berggrav, to reconsider the traditional Lutheran view.
Ethics Lutheran ethical teaching has been described as centring on faith active in love, which means that the believer makes moral choices in freedomwithout preset rules and laws.
Lutheranism has thus eschewed the notion of a specifically Christian ethos but has insisted that the place of ethical endeavour is the common ordinary life, in which Christian believers are called upon to serve their neighbours.
The emphasis in the traditional mass on the reiteration of the sacrifice of Jesus was replaced by an emphasis on thanksgiving. Because of the importance placed on the Biblethe sermon occupied the pivotal place in worship.
In the early 21st century, most Lutheran churches followed essentially the same order of worship. Other liturgical revisions in Sweden inin Germany inand in North America in, and increased the uniformity of Lutheran worship beyond national boundaries. In the decades following the reform, a tendency emerged in the ELCA to allow even young children to receive the bread and wine.
Other rites of the Lutheran churches are baptismconfirmation, ordinationmarriageand burial.
Lutherans practice infant baptism. In confirmation which usually occurs between the ages of 10 and 15the individual publicly professes the faith received in baptism. Lutheranism made an important contribution to Protestant hymnodywhich not only conveyed the evangelical teaching but also allowed for increased popular participation in worship.
American Lutherans have been heir to this heritage, but since the 19th century they have also embraced the hymnody of Anglo-Saxon Protestantism. Hymns from the 20th century, such as those by the German composer Hugo Distler, have been adopted somewhat more sparingly, though in the early 21st century, as evidenced by the new ELCA hymnal and worship book, Evangelical Worship, a persistent effort was under way to make Lutheran hymnody contemporary and multicultural.Chapter 2 Section 5.
Contrast the relationship between church and state in the colonies of Massachusetts Bay and Rhode Island? Massachusetts Bay didn't have separation between church and state, while Rhode Island saw it was necessary to have the separation between the church and the state.
The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation ashio-midori.comtually, the term refers to the creation of a secular state (with or without legally explicit church–state separation) and to disestablishment, the changing of an existing, formal relationship between .
Contrast the relationship between church and state in the colonies of Massachusetts Bay and Rhode Island The colonies of Massachusetts Bay had church and state as the same thing, while the colonies of Rhode Island kept the .
Church and state. Lutheran theology has understood the relationship between church and state in terms of God’s two ways of ruling in the world (two “realms” or “kingdoms”).
The distinction is similar to that made by St. Augustine between the City of God and the City of the World. On this side of Christ’s return, the church and state cannot be one and the same. Each occupies a separate realm of authority and responsibility, but they also have an intrinsic and direct relationship to each other consistent with Biblical truth, wisdom and reasoning.
The principle of the separation of church and state is the division of religious and political power.
It helps prevent abuses from both sides. The principle of the separation of church and state is the division of religious and political power.