Europe, to The term " Enlightenment " refers to a loosely organized intellectual movement, secular, rationalist, liberal, and egalitarian in outlook and values, which flourished in the middle decades of the eighteenth century. Although it was international in scope, the center of gravity of the movement was in France, which assumed an unprecedented leadership in European intellectual life.
Literature Romanticism proper was preceded by several related developments from the midth century on that can be termed Pre-Romanticism.
Among such trends was a new appreciation of the medieval romance, from which the Romantic movement derives its name. The romance was a tale or ballad of chivalric adventure whose emphasis on individual heroism and on the exotic and the mysterious was in clear contrast to the elegant formality and artificiality of prevailing Classical forms of literature, such as the French Neoclassical tragedy or the English heroic couplet in poetry.
This new interest in relatively unsophisticated but overtly emotional literary expressions of the past was to be a dominant note in Romanticism.
The first phase of the Romantic movement in Germany was marked by innovations in both content and literary style and by a preoccupation with the mystical, the subconscious, and the supernatural. The revived historical appreciation was translated into imaginative writing by Sir Walter Scottwho is often considered to have invented the historical novel.
Maturin, the Marquis de Sadeand E. These artists favoured themes that were bizarre, pathetic, or extravagantly heroic, and they defined their images with tensely linear drawing and bold contrasts of light and shade. William Blake, the other principal early Romantic painter in England, evolved his own powerful and unique visionary images.
Courtesy of the trustees of the Tate, London; photographs, G. In the next generation the great genre of English Romantic landscape painting emerged in the works of J.
Turner and John Constable. These artists emphasized transient and dramatic effects of light, atmosphere, and colour to portray a dynamic natural world capable of evoking awe and grandeur. Ingres represent the last, more academic phase of Romantic painting in France.
In Germany Romantic painting took on symbolic and allegorical overtones, as in the works of P. Caspar David Friedrichthe greatest German Romantic artist, painted eerily silent and stark landscapes that can induce in the beholder a sense of mystery and religious awe. Musical Romanticism was marked by emphasis on originality and individuality, personal emotional expression, and freedom and experimentation of form.
Excerpt from Harold en Italie, by Hector Berlioz, Written for viola and orchestra, the piece is played here by viola and piano. The possibilities for dramatic expressiveness in music were augmented both by the expansion and perfection of the instrumental repertoire and by the creation of new musical forms, such as the lied, nocturne, intermezzo, capriccio, prelude, and mazurka.
The Romantic spirit often found inspiration in poetic texts, legendsand folk tales, and the linking of words and music either programmatically or through such forms as the concert overture and incidental music is another distinguishing feature of Romantic music.
These composers pushed orchestral instruments to their limits of expressiveness, expanded the harmonic vocabulary to exploit the full range of the chromatic scaleand explored the linking of instrumentation and the human voice.
The Italian Romantic opera was brought to the height of its development by Giuseppe Verdi. The Romantic opera in Germany culminated in the works of Richard Wagnerwho combined and integrated such diverse strands of Romanticism as fervent nationalism; the cult of the hero; exotic sets and costumes; expressive music; and the display of virtuosity in orchestral and vocal settings.
The final phase of musical Romanticism is represented by such late 19th-century and early 20th-century composers as Gustav MahlerRichard StraussSir Edward Elgarand Jean Sibelius. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:Pappe defined the Enlightenment as a historical period extending from the late seventeenth century (the Glorious Revolution, the era of John Locke [ – ] or Pierre Bayle [ – ]) to the late eighteenth or early nineteenth century (American Revolution, French Revolution, or the defeat of Napoleon and the Romantic reaction against the Enlightenment).
Romantic and Gothic Literature The gothic literary movement is a part of the larger Romantic Movement. Gothic literature shares many of the traits of romanticism, such as . (Lincoln had a singular role in the nation's re-birth, however, and a prominent role in the history of civil rights.) Is Cleopatra the most important pharaoh?
Not Ramesses II? I support trying to maximize female representation on the list, but I'm still not sure her impact on history was that substantial. Of all the English poets that comprise the Romantic period, George Gordon, Lord Byron (), John Keats (), and Samuel Taylor Coleridge () stand as the quintessential masters of Romantic poetry.
Their contributions to the aesthetics of versification, from which emerged "a. The Romantic movement in English literature of the early 19th century has its roots in 18th-century poetry, Though John Keats shared Byron and Shelley's radical politics, "his best poetry is not political", BBC Radio 4 discussion with Jonathan Bate, Rosemary Ashton and Nicholas Roe (Oct.
12, ). Romantic Anticapitalism Eastman’s root idea was that socialism should be a normal extension of individualism, and esteem for the dignity and freedom of the human being, especially as one’s senses and personality unfolded in nature.